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Criminology is the systematic study of criminals.

Criminals are people who commit crimes.

Criminologists are people who study criminology.

The study deals with:

  • Study of crimes
  • nature of crimes
  • causes of crimes
  • detection of crimes
  • prevention of crimes


  • Criminology is the science of crime in all aspects.
  • Edwin H Sutherland
  • D R Cressey: Criminology is the body of knowledge regarding crime as a social phenomenon.
  • Elliot M A Merill
  • D R Taft
  • Webster Dictionary
  • Jock Young formulated six dichotomies to understand criminal behavior:
    • Individual's behavior: Free vs Determinism
    • Functioning of social order: Consensus vs Coercion
    • Definition of Crime: Legal vs Social
    • Extent and Distribution of crime: Limited vs Extensive
    • Causes of crime: Individual vs Social
    • Policy towards criminals: Punishment vs Treatment

Causes of Crime

  • Social causes of crime
  • Economic causes of crime
  • Physical and mental causes of crime
  • Geographical causes of crime
  • Political causes of crime

Causation of Crime

  • Heredity and crime
  • Mental Disorder and Criminality
  • M' Naghten's Rule of Criminal Responsibility
  • Insanity under Indian Criminal Law
  • Bio-physical factors and criminality
  • Intelligence Testing and criminality
  • Personality aspects of criminals
    • Hooton's View
    • Sheldon's Views on Criminality
    • Donald Taft
    • Freud's theory of criminal behavior
    • Glueck's Psychiatric Theory of Crime
  • Psychological concept of crime
  • Aristotle's Four Laws of Association
  • Conflict Theory of Crime
  • Female Criminality - Gender-based explanations
  • Group Therapy

Sociological Theory of Crime

  • Sociological Theory of Criminal Behavior
  • Theory of Differential Association
  • Multiple Factor Approach to Crime Causation
    • Mobility
    • Culture Conflict
    • Family Background
    • Political Ideology
    • Religion and Crime
    • Economic conditions
    • Ecology of crime
    • Media influence
  • Crime in urban and rural areas
  • Neighborhood influences

Tentative Theory of Crime

Crime and Economic Conditions

Organized Crime

White Collar Crime

Cyber Crimes

Sexual Offenders

Alcoholism, Drug Addiction and Crime

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