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Welcome to LawNotes.in. This website is an attempt to provide information on the happenings, judgements, developments, news and information in the world of Law.
What is Law?
The term Law has various definitions. Many lawmakers and scholars have defined Law in various ways. So, as such, there is no single definition on what law means. In its simplest form, "Law is a system of rules which are enforced through a set of institutions".
Check the various Definitions of Law.
In the words of W.S. Gilbert,
The Law is the true embodiment, Of everything that's excellent, It has no kind of fault or flaw, And I, my Lords, embody the Law.
Legal Systems of various countries
- Sources and Theories of International Law
- Concept of Subjects (states, individuals and non-states) and State Responsibility
- Recognition of a State and a Government
- State Succession and related theories
- Intervention and its grounds, Monroe Doctrine, Drago Doctrine
- State Jurisdiction or Territorial Jurisdiction deals with the territories where States can enjoy full freedom
- State Territory deals with modes in which States are acquired or lost
- State Immunity gives immunity to States from Court proceedings
- International Servitude specifies how and in what way certain properties can be enjoyed by States
- Law of the Sea deals with International Law on the marine belt / territorial waters
- Other topics includes United Nations Organization and its constituent bodies
- Human Rights
- International Humanitarian Law, also called the laws of war, laws and customs of war and law of armed conflict
- Protection of Human Rights Act, 1993, an Indian Act that deals with constitution of a National Human Rights Commission, State Human Rights Commissions in States and Human Rights Courts for better protection of human rights and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.
- Also called the Law of Taxation, this section deals with country-specific laws related to Taxation
- Concepts such as Tax, Fee, Duty, Cess, Fine etc.
- Broadly speaking, taxes are of two types: Direct Taxes and Indirect Taxes
- Income-Tax Act, 1961 deals with Taxable entities, residential status, assessment, period (previous year, assessment year etc.), Heads of Income, Capital Gains, Deductions allowed etc.
- Media reports say that the Government is likely to curtail the list of entities exempted from the Benami Transactions (Prohibition) Act, 1988 to give more teeth to the new legislation.
- Wealth Tax Act, 1957 is the tax on wealth
- Service Tax Act, 1994 is the tax on providing services
- Gift Tax Act, 1958 is repealed now. It is still studied for academic interest
- Andhra Pradesh General Sales Tax Act, 1957
- Central Sales Tax Act, 1956
- Customs, Excise and Service Tax Appellate Tribunal (Procedure) Rules, 1982 (Also popular as CESAT Rules, 1982)
- Laws related to Value Added Tax
- Deals with the concept of Intellectual Property, Choses in action
- Copyright, Indian Copyright Act, 1914
- Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 deals with various definitions related to trade marks, Trade Marks Registry, procedure for getting a Trade Mark and grounds on which a trade mark application can be rejected etc.
- Patents Act, 1970 is the Indian Act on the topic of Patents.
- Designs Act, 1911 etc.
- Apple Inc vs Samsung Electronics Co Ltd et al, No. 11-CV-01846-LHK
- Deals with the theories, kinds and modes of acquisition of property, concept of Eminent domain, Escheat
- Movement of the Land Movement in India
- Laws related to land acquisition (property) and regulations.
- Andhra Pradesh Land Reforms is an Act that deals with Ceiling of Agricultural and Urban land holdings
- Laws related to Tenancy Reforms in India and in Andhra Pradesh. Andhra Pradesh (Andhra Area) Tenancy Act, 1958
- Andhra Pradesh Buildings (Lease, Rent & Eviction) Control Act, 1960 is a rent control act.
- Laws related to Assignment / Alienation in Scheduled areas: Andhra Pradesh Scheduled Areas Land Transfer Regulation, 1959
- Laws related to Grabbing
- Andhra Pradesh Land Grabbing (Prohibition) Act, 1982
- Andhra Pradesh Land Encroachment Act, 1905
- Andhra Pradesh Assigned Lands (Prohibition of Transfers) Act, 1977
- Andhra Pradesh Public Premises (Eviction of Un-Authorised Occupants) Act, 1968
- Also includes Labor Laws, this section deals with laws related to industries, labor welfare and disputes arising out of them.
- Minimum Wages Act, 1948
- Payment of Wages Act, 1936
- Payment of Gratuity Act
- Payment of Bonus Act, 1965
- Bonded Labour System (Abolition) Act, 1976
- Employee's State Insurance Act, 1948
- Evidence deals with three broad areas: Relevancy of Facts, On Proof, Production and Effect of Evidence
- Other topics include various preliminary definitions, concept and classification of Evidences, Res Gestae, Conspiracy etc.
- Admissions and Confessions, Statements by persons
- Judgements, Opinions of Third persons, Expert Opinion, Medical Evidence, Oral Evidence, Public and Private Documents etc.
- Concept of Estoppel, Lex Fori, Res Gestae and Burden of proof / Onus Probandi
- Examination of Witness
- Indian Evidence Act, 1872
- Evidence Act, 2011 of the Australian Capital Territory Consolidated Acts
- Circumstantial Evidence is all evidence of indirect nature
- Code of Civil Procedure, 1908, a procedural law in India
- Limitation Act, 1963
- Kenyan Limitation of Actions Act
- A major portion is related to Hindu Law (Hindu Succession Act, 1956 and Hindu Marriage Act, 1955) and Muslim Law
- Study of family law is broadly divided into Comparative Family Institutions and Testamentary and Intestate Succession
- Comparative Family Institutions deals with the Concept of Family, Marriage And Kinship, Applicability & Sources of Law, Essential conditions for marriage, State intervention, Matrimonial Remedies, Maintenance, Child and the family, Customary practices and the law, family court
- Testamentary and Intestate Succession deals with Concept of property, Inheritance, Devolution of interest, Succession to property, Disqualifications, Muslim Law of Inheritance and Succession and laws and acts
A contract needs three essential elements in order for it to be valid and enforceable - offer and acceptance, consideration and the intention to create legal relations. The Contract Law deals with the study of various types of contracts, enforceability, breach and remedies.
- Contract Acts of various countries: Indian Contract Act, 1872, South Sudan Contract Act, 2008
- Indian Partnership Act, 1932 - the law relating to Partnership
- Sale of Goods Act, 1930 - the Act related to contract of sale of goods
- Section 136 of Malaysian Contracts Act, 1950
- Contributory Negligence says that one who by his own negligence contributed to the injury of which he complains cannot maintain an action against another in respect of it.
- Malaysia Banking and Financial Institutions Act, 1989
- Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934
- Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881
- Foreign Contribution (Regulation) Act, 2010
- Securities and Exchange Board of India (KYC Registration Agency) Regulations, 2011
- 2012 Libor Scandal
Legal Ethics & Advocacy
- Legal Ethics of Advocates
- Advocates and Accountancy
- Contempt of Court
- Advocates Act, 1961
- Judicial Ombudsman
- Advocate, at times, can be an Amicus curiae to the Court
- The Preamble
- The Union and its territories
- Deals with the relationship between the executive, the legislature and the judiciary
- Concept of Citizenship and Domicile
- Center (Federal / Union) and State Government Relationships
- Fundamental Rights and Duties
- Directive Principles of State policy
- Role and Functions of the Parliament
- The Union Judiciary (Supreme Court)
- State Executive, Legislature and Judiciary
- Union Territories and tribal areas
- Local Governing Bodies - Panchayats, Municipalities etc.
- Elections and the Election Governing Body
- Official Language
- Provisions related to Emergency
- Amendments and amending process
- Constitutions of the World - Provides list of Chapters, Parts and Articles of constitutions of various countries.
Other legal topics
- Interpretation of Statutes
- Administrative Law
- Company Law
- Companies Act, 2013 - the newly introduced Indian Act on Companies
- Consumer Protection Law
- Cyber Law
- Environmental Law
- Medical Law - Law related to medical professionals and the rights of the patient
- Education Law - Law related to educational institutions such as Schools & Universities, education boards, government policies and decisions
- Jurisprudence - the Theory and Philosophy of Law
- Legal research
- Quotes and Maxims provides some interesting quotes on various topics related to Law
- Definitions of Law gives definitions of various legal terms
- People - List of Legal Professionals, Jurists, Judges and Justices and Personalities in the field of Law and Justice
- Andhra Pradesh Reorganisation Act, 2014